Executive Functions, Intelligence(s), The Learning Process: Effects of the ADHD spectrum, acquired brain injuries, epilepsy and seizures, and many learning disabilities have on these essential functions of the human mind

Main Areas of Interest on Spectrum of Minds

  • Executive Functions
  • Intelligence(s)
  • Learning
  • The ADHD Spectrum & Executive Function
  • Acquired Brain Injuries
  •  Epilepsy and Seizures 
  •  Various Learning Disabilities 
  •  Learning & Coping Strategies
  •  Cognitive Diversity

and how all affect learning and functioning

Thank You for Learning with Us!

Beth D. Johnson, MEd+ 
Head Writer, Researcher, 
Spectrum of Minds™

Executive DYSFunctions + The ADHD Spectrum Equals Cause and Effect!

ADHD is a Problem Based on a Mixture of One's Executive DYSfunctions! It Does Not Stem From Low Intelligence or LAZINESS! 

Proven by thousands of brain imaging studies showing areas of the brain working TOO hard OR NOT hard enough to accomplish their tasks 

Example of a Whole Brain Image Scan

EVERYONE has trouble with their executive functions from time to time

 HOWEVER, those along the ADHD spectrum have trouble with their own specific mixture of executive DYSfunctions ALL the time (unless involved in something they are VERY INTERESTED IN).

** The ADHD Spectrum includes those who exhibit hyperactive and impulsive behaviors all the way to those who are extremely inattentive.

This includes during school ( for subjects and skills that they are not interested in) and those times when they are NOT at school (again, for those things for which they have no interest).

ADHD = Executive DYSfunctions

Executive dysfunctioning is THE main problem with the neurobiological disorder of ADHD, although this is debateable by some leaders in this area. 

It is easy to see why problems with memory, self-regulation, time, and the mental management of time, among other cognitive problems could be mistaken for low intelligence, laziness, brain damage, etc.

HOWEVER, this assumption is based on perceptions that have NO basis in the most recent research in brain functioning.
What has been learned in the last 10-20 years through new brain imaging technology, such as FMRI, MET and other functional, as opposed to, static imaging of the brain, has increased "real" knowledge of what is truly behaviors we can only guess about and make assumptions concerning motivations.

Gene studies, beginning with the World Genome Project has allowed scientists and researchers to isolate specific genes that create deficiencies in specific neurotransmitters essential for the effective workings of those brain regions that control executive functioning processes.


This chart from Thomas Brown, Phd.  summarizes the executive functions that are impaired in ADHD for your reference. 
(Remember that ADHD is an umbrella term for any of the subtypes of this disorder.)


Executive Impairments in ADHD

Different leaders in the field of attention deficit disorder, such as Dr. Russell Barkley and Dr. Thomas Brown, disagree on the exact executive functions involved in this disorder. However, they do agree that EF's are the main culprit involved in dysfunction. Regardless of their viewpoints, learning from what they know puts us all at a clear advantage when helping children and adults. In this short video, Russell Barkley discusses the executive functions involved in ADHD based on the research he follows.


Thoughts on Dyslexia, Intelligence, Being Different, ADHD, and Why People Have The Wrong Perspective in These Areas by Jonathan Mooney

Jonathan Mooney speaks on his book, "The Short Bus: A Journey Beyond Normal", and disorders like dyslexia, ADHD, and others, including the problems with the way most people perceive differences such as these. 


About Jonathan Mooney
He grew up dyslexic and had learning extreme learning disabilities in a time when these problems were not acknowledged and helped on as broad of a scale as they are today (and we have a long way to go!). He learned to work with his differences and succeeded in college, making cognitive diversity his passion and life goal. 


About His Books and Speeches
His books, as well as, his talks are funny and inspirational. He gives practical and knowledgeable advice to anyone who has or deals with those who have conditions that create brain "wiring" that makes them learn or function different from the "norm".



The Short Bus: A Journey Beyond Normal is the second of Jonathan Mooney's bestselling books. 

How Does A Doctor Determine if a Child or Teen Has a SubType of ADHD?

Children mature at different rates (in different domains - cognition, social, motor, etc.) and have different personalities, temperaments, and energy levels. Most children get distracted, act impulsively, and struggle to concentrate at one time or another. It is quite easy to mistake these normal factors for ADHD-Primarily Hyperactive, AD/HD Combined: Hyperactive and Inattentive, or ADHD Primarily Inattentive.

However, there are specific characteristics for this disorder, an age of onset for specific subtypes, and consistency of symptoms across environments, situations, and age.


ADHD symptoms normally appear early in life, often between the ages of 3 and 6, but because symptoms vary from person to person, the disorder can be hard to diagnose. Inattentive subtypes may be more likely to develop symptoms in middle childhood. Parents may first notice that their child loses interest in things sooner than other children, or seems perpetually "out of control.” Sometimes it is teachers who notice the symptoms originally, when a child has trouble abiding by rules, or frequently “zones out" in the classroom or on the playground. Again, the symptoms depend on the individual and the subtype of this condition.

To date, their is no specific test for diagnosing a child (or adult) as having ADHD. Instead, a licensed health professional needs to gather information about the child, and his or her behavior and environment. A family may want to first talk with the child's pediatrician.

Some pediatricians can assess the child themselves, but many will refer the family to a mental health specialist, such as a neuropsychologist, with experience in childhood neuro-biological disorders such as ADHD. The pediatrician or mental health specialist will first try to rule out other possibilities for the symptoms. For example, certain situations, events, or health conditions may cause temporary behaviors in a child that seem like ADHD.

The referring pediatrician and/or specialist will determine if a child:

  • Is experiencing undetected seizures that could be associated with other medical conditions - these type of seizures look much like ADHD-primarily inattentive
  • Has a middle ear infection that is causing hearing problems
  • Has any undetected hearing or vision problems
  • Has any medical problems that affect thinking and behavior
  • Has any learning disabilities
  • Has anxiety or depression, or other psychiatric problems that might cause ADHD-like symptoms
  • Has been affected by a significant and sudden change, such as the death of a family member, a divorce, or parent's job loss.

A specialist will also check school and medical records for clues, to see if the child's home or school settings appear unusually stressful or disrupted, and gather information from the child's parents and teachers. Coaches, babysitters, and other adults who know the child well also may be consulted.

The specialist also will ask:
  • Are the behaviors excessive and long-term, and do they affect all aspects of the child's life?
  • Do they happen more often in this child compared with the child's peers?
  • Are the behaviors a continuous problem or a response to a temporary situation?
  • Do the behaviors occur in several settings or only in one place, such as the playground, classroom, or home?
A specialist who does a very good job of accessing a child, teen, or adult for ADHD pays close attention to the child's behavior during various situations. Some situations are highly structured, some have less structure. Others would require the child to keep paying attention.
Most children with ADHD are better able to control their behaviors in situations where they are getting individual attention and when they are free to focus on enjoyable activities. These types of situations are less important in the assessment.

A child also may be evaluated to see how he or she acts in social situations, and may be given tests of intellectual ability and academic achievement to see if he or she has a learning disability. (NOTE from Spectrum of Minds: Many of these traditional I.Q. and academic achievement tests are not as reliable as they claim to be in specific cases. Always get a second opinion or more, if possible,(we know it is costly - look for free or other sources).

Finally, if after gathering all this information the child meets the criteria for ADHD, he or she will be diagnosed with the disorder. 

BEWARE of the doctor or clinician who asks a few simple questions and hands over a quick prescription!!! THERE MAY BE A LOT MORE THAN ADHD GOING ON ! 
DO NOT TAKE ANY CHANCES!

Let me give you a very true, but cautionary story. My brother-in-law's daughter was very impulsive